Corruption Watch analyzes all reported incidents very thoroughly - all we need is your help! https://www.corruptionwatch.org.za/glossary-of-corruption-related-terms Although corruption is often associated with bribery, it is not only limited to bribery. These jurisdictions are defined by the tax benefits they offer and, in the case of corrupt individuals wanting to hide their funds, the secrecy that ensures that those making use of its regulation. Also referred to as CAPITAL FLIGHT. Often, nominees pre-sign documentation, such as letters of resignation, which the beneficial owner can choose to effect at any time. Systemic Corruption occurs because of the weaknesses of organizations or process. AUDITING – refers to an official examination of an organisation or institution’s accounts, to make sure money has been spent according to rules, regulations and norms. The annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) ranks countries and territories by their perceived levels of public sector corruption, according to experts and business people.Launched in 1995, and with comparable data back to 2012, the CPI has been widely credited with putting the issue of corruption on the international policy agenda. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries. Systemic corruption is not a special category of corrupt practice, but rather a situation in which the major institutions and processes of the state are routinely dominated and used by corrupt individuals and groups, and in which most people have no alternatives to dealing with corrupt officials. Preventing public sector corruption ... but that, in some cases, higher wages and merit-based promotions are associated with a lower probability of the acceptance of illegal payments. Yet, corruption seems to be everywhere, indeed often encouraged by rich countries and their corporations, especially when it comes to natural resources, and arms trade. These financial services can include minimum government interference and very low or zero tax rates. Corruption can The term corruption is vague and is not easily defined. (NPC or player) Wearing this rune will cause all players and enemy hunters to drop Blood Dregs when killed. POLITICAL CORRUPTION – the manipulation of policies, institutions and rules of procedure in the allocation of resources and financing by political decision makers, who abuse their position to sustain their power, status and wealth. Corruption is dishonest behavior by those in positions of power, such as managers or government officials. Corruption can involve anyone: politicians, government officials, public servants, business people or members of the public. Find out what is happening in the world of corruption, Engage with current debates around the topic of corruption in SA. POLITICALLY EXPOSED PERSONS – individuals who are or have been entrusted with prominent public functions in a foreign country, for example heads of state or of government, senior politicians, senior government, judicial or military officials, senior executives of state owned corporations, or important political party officials. FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE UNIT (FIU) – an FIU is a central, national agency responsible for receiving (and, as permitted, requesting), analysing and disseminating to the competent authorities, disclosures of financial information: (i) concerning suspected proceeds of crime and potential financing of terrorism, or (ii) required by national legislation or regulation, in order to counter money laundering and terrorism financing. Illegal capital flight is intended to disappear from any record in the country of origin. Six U.S. Oil Executives Are Convicted of Corruption in Venezuela The so-called Citgo 6, who had been lured to Venezuela three years ago for a business meeting, were immediately sentenced to … MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE – the formal process of co-operation between two or more jurisdictions, for example on cross-border money laundering, asset recovery and tax evasion cases. Synonyms: softener, sweetener, gift. See also CORRUPTION, PETTY CORRUPTION and POLITICAL CORRUPTION. The term in English is largely positive although many languages lack a similar concept with the same connotation. Sufficient information must be available so that other agencies and the general public can assess whether the relevant procedures are followed, consonant with the given mandate. However, at the core of most definitions of corruption is the idea that a corrupt act implies the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. SHELL COMPANY – a limited liability entity having no physical presence in their jurisdiction, no employees and no commercial activity. This page provides the latest reported value for - New Zealand Corruption Rank - plus previous releases, historical high and low, short-term forecast and long-term prediction, economic calendar, survey consensus and news. The term can also be applied to companies and NGOs. Anti-bribery and corruption compliance — and the mitigation of associated risk — continue to be some of the main challenges that companies are facing, both in their domestic markets and abroad. EMBEZZLEMENT – when a person holding office in an institution, organisation or company dishonestly and illegally appropriates, uses or traffics the funds and goods they have been entrusted with for personal enrichment or other activities. on the path to systematic vocabulary improvement. 4 MANAGING CORRUPTION RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH SECONDARY EMPLOYMENT Summary In the 2016–17 financial year, the Crime and Corruption Commission (CCC) completed an audit examining how allegations involving conflicts of interest by council employees were dealt with by councils and the robustness of councils [ systems of internal controls. Nominees could also be family members or friends. Five years after the FBI began investigating corruption in the leadership ranks of the United Auto Workers union, the U.S. Justice Department and the union have agreed to a consent order that places the union under the oversight of an independent monitor. Actual activity over the account is compared to the KYC profile to identify activity that raises suspicions of money laundering. What is an allegation? CORRUPTION – According to the Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act, corruption occurs when one party gives another party anything of value with the purpose of influencing them to abuse their power. CAPITAL FLIGHT – this is money that shifts out of a country, whether legally or illegally. Don't have an account yet? Thirdly, corruption … The kinds of transactions that attract grand corruption are usually large in scale – and therefore involve more money than bureaucratic or ‘petty’ corruption. An integrity system, therefore, is a political and administrative arrangement that encourages integrity. In those cases, gift-giving can be regarded as bribery. PROTECTED DISCLOSURE (see WHISTLEBLOWER) – a statement or report about serious wrongdoing, like corrupt conduct, maladministration or a substantial waste of public money. However, most patrons are motivated by the desire to gain power, wealth and status through their behaviour. otherwise noted, and do not necessarily reflect those of Transparency International e.V.. Sign up to our newsletter and receive relevant content every month! Read more here. CONAKRY (Reuters) - Guinea President Alpha Conde promised on Tuesday to tackle corruption among senior officials during his third term, with policies aimed at … FAVOURITISM – this refers to the normal human inclination to prefer acquaintances, friends and family over strangers. Federal Public Corruption and Bribery Terms and Definitions Federal public corruption and bribery are very serious crimes in DC. For example, a public official may promise to use his or her real or supposed influence to the benefit of another person in exchange for money or other favours. Not all rent-seeking behaviour can be equated with corruption. SPOILATION – in legal terms, spoilation is the intentional destruction or alteration of a document required for evidence; more broadly it refers to the destruction or plunder of something valuable. This often undermines legislation and regulation of another jurisdiction. Corruption can take on different meanings depending on whether the acts occur in the public or private sector (Eiras, 2003). In the processes related to the public project, such as bidding, contracting and implementing, both the administration and the company pledge not to bribe or take bribes, and agree to punishment should they break this pledge. Confusion: the user can use the darkness in the victim's heart and clash it with the victim's light causing the person to be paralyzed in a state of confusion with conflicting forces. The vocabulary of political corruption. The term often includes their relatives and close associates. Professional nominees are paid a fee for their services but otherwise have no interest in the transactions. RENT-SEEKING – a term from economics where actors attempt to derive economic rents by manipulating the social and political environment in which economic activities occur, rather than by adding value. Protected disclosures are made internally in the organisation, or to an ombudsman or someone with the power to prevent retaliation against the discloser. CLIENTELISM (see PATRONAGE) – a form of patronage in which an informal relationship exists between people of different social and economic status: a ‘patron’ (boss, big man) and his ‘clients’ (dependants, followers, protégés). Fraud & corruption - related words and phrases | Cambridge SMART Vocabulary In more common language, the term ‘fraud’ usually includes activities such as illegally transferring company money to your own or a friend’s bank account, pretending to have qualifications you do not have, pretending to have rendered a service that you have not rendered. MONEY LAUNDERING – any act or attempted act to disguise the source of money or assets derived from criminal activity. However, rent-seeking may involve corruption where officials solicit or extract bribes for applying their discretionary authority for awarding legitimate or illegitimate benefits to clients. Two other Cabinet ministers, including Batubara’s predecessor, have been sentenced to prison terms in corruption cases. CONTROLLED, UNCONTROLLED CORRUPTION – in some countries you will find centralised, co-ordinated and disciplined corruption, while decentralised, disordered and irregular corruption exists in others. Corruption: Corruption is a term that has been perceived in various ways by various scholars. Spoilation occurs when high-ranking officials loot the wealth of their states (see KLEPTOCRACY). SAN FRANCISCO (AP) — The head of San Francisco’s Public Utilities Commission, which oversees millions of dollars in city contracts, has resigned … FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) – an inter-governmental body, such as the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group, whose purpose is to develop and promote national and international policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. NEPOTISM (SEE CLIENTELISM, FAVOURITISM) – a form of favouritism that involves family relationships. There are several FATF-style regional bodies that have anti-money laundering and combating and financing of terrorism as their objectives. Beat your last streak, or best your overall time. Sign up. GRAND CORRUPTION – the abuse of high-level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many, and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society. ko-rup'-shun: The Hebrew words mishchath, mashchath, mashchith, and their Greek equivalents, phthora, and diaphthora, with numerous derivatives and cognate verbs, imply primarily physical degeneration and decay (Job 17:14; Acts 2:27, etc. STATE CAPTURE – the phenomenon in which outside interests (often the private sector, Mafia networks, etc.) Private sector corruption is characterised by groups from this sector influencing decisions and actions that lead to abuses of entrusted power. PROCUREMENT – a multi-step process of established procedures to acquire goods and services by any individual, company or organisation, from the initial needs assessment to the contract’s award and service delivery. Tax avoidance is the legal practice of seeking to minimise a tax bill by taking advantage of a loophole or exception to the rules, or adopting an unintended interpretation of the tax code. CHECKS AND BALANCES – these are a common reference to the institutional mechanisms for preventing power abuse. But during a raucous and confrontational session of Parliament on Wednesday, Mr. Hunt rejected opposition calls for his resignation and denied that he had acted improperly toward Mr. Murdoch. Another word for corruption. The head of San Francisco’s Public Utilities Commission, which oversees millions of dollars in city contracts, has resigned after being charged with bribery in an ongoing federal corruption probe. For this reason, it is very important that a person understands the charges against them and the terms associated with those charges. Submit a report of any corrupt activity you are aware of to Corruption Watch! DISCLOSURE – this refers to the provision of information as required under law or in good faith, regarding activities of a private individual, public official, company or organisation. In other words, bribery is only one form of corruption. Patrimonial and clientelist practices can institutionalise hegemonic elites and political corruption, often reaching the highest ranks of state power. These complaints can comprise multiple allegations. The spoils are the benefits reaped, the booty, rewards, profits etc. It is important to note that active bribery does not always mean that the briber has taken the initiative. Receive relevant content every month! Continuous healing when near death (lower than 12.5% hp). The rulers are not in command of who will gain how much, or from what. Bribery is widely criminalised through international and national laws. Corruption can occur in any sector, whether public or private. Where some or all of the pillars are weak, this can allow corruption to thrive. When public (and private sector) officials demonstrate favouritism to unfairly distribute positions and resources, they are guilty of cronyism or nepotism, depending on their relationship with the person who benefits. (See below a discussion of characteristics of corruption). Good governance is characterised as being participatory, accountable, transparent, efficient, responsive and inclusive, respecting the rule of law and minimising opportunities for corruption. It's free and takes five seconds. Its mastery is a must for political journalists. FAKELAKI – this Greek term is close to the notion of ‘tip’ in meaning, but at the same time it may refer to specific tariffs demanded by government officials in order to bypass procedure. Do you know your baksheesh from your bribery? ACCOUNTABILITY – this denotes a relationship between a bearer of a right and the agents or agencies responsible for fulfilling or respecting that right. It is an admission or revelation that – when fulfilling certain requirements – entitles the person who made the disclosure to support and protection from reprisals, victimisation or even prosecution. CORRUPTION. It is usually formed in a tax haven or secrecy jurisdiction and its main or sole purpose is to insulate the real beneficial owner from taxes, disclosure or both. CONFLICT OF INTEREST – this arises when an individual with a formal responsibility to serve the public participates in an activity that jeopardises his or her professional judgment, objectivity and independence. DEBARMENT – a company is debarred by a government or multilateral agency when it is formally prohibited from tendering for projects that the government or agency is funding (or supporting the funding for). Illegal flight capital can be generated through a number of means, including trade mispricing, bulk cash movements, hawala transactions, smuggling, among others. In a sense, then, he or she is the more active party in the transaction. CONVENTIONS – these are international and regional agreements signed or formally adopted through ratification by multiple states that establish rules, laws and standards on issues which are typically cross-border in nature and require a common approach for effective, multilateral cooperation. Petty corruption is also described as ‘survival’ corruption: a form of corruption which is pursued by junior or mid-level agents who may be grossly underpaid and who depend on relatively small but illegal rents to feed and house their families and pay for their children’s education. Combating would mean governments and states looking at corruption as an enemy yet in the same way it brings with it some disadvantages BUT it also carries with it advantages. Ukrainian lawmakers defied a ruling from the nation’s highest court and voted Friday to reauthorize criminal penalties for officials who provide false information about their incomes. FIDUCIARY RISK – corruption is one type of fiduciary risk, which in the development aid context is the risk that aid funds are not used for the intended purposes, do not achieve value for money, and/or are not properly accounted for. Proving intention is difficult; therefore the dividing line between avoidance and evasion is often unclear. Also see CLIENTELISM. An “allegation” is an individual instance of alleged corrupt conduct (as defined by the Crime and Corruption Act 2001 (Qld)) recorded in the CCC corruption database. Fiduciary risk is of particular concern when donors provide direct budget support, as partner governments’ public financial management systems are often relatively weak. “The ANC can't be associated with people who are selfish, corrupt and embrace corruption, and people who don't respect the rule of law. Often this activity (such as a private business venture) primarily serves personal interests and can potentially influence the objective exercise of the individual’s official duties. Secondly, impaired governance increases poverty by restricting economic growth and, coming full circle, by its inability to control corruption. NOMINEE (DIRECTOR / OWNER / SHAREHOLDER, ETC) – this person acts as the legal manager, owner or shareholder of limited companies or assets, on behalf of the real manager, owner or shareholder of these entities. Corruption Watch’s definition is similar, “the abuse of public resources or public power for personal gain”. POLITICAL WILL – a commitment by political leaders to address the challenges facing society or to fulfil a political pledge, such as fighting corruption or increasing political participation, by pursuing the appropriate policy responses, including wide-spread reforms. Uncontrolled corruption is generally considered more harmful for a country’s economy, although controlled corruption also can have harmful economic effects in the long-term. SECRECY JURISDICTIONS – territories, including cities, states/provinces and countries that encourage the relocation of otherwise foreign economic and financial transactions through strong privacy protection rules. GREASE MONEY – these are simply bribes, seen from the angle of the briber and alluding to the ‘drop of oil given to a squeaky wheel’ of excessive bureaucracy to make the things move smoothly again. A broader definition, used by Transparency International, is the abuse of entrusted power for personal gain. TRADING OF INFLUENCE – refers to the exchange of undue advantages between a public official and a member of the public. WHISTLEBLOWING (see PROTECTED DISCLOSURE) – refers to making a disclosure in the public interest by an employee, director or external person, in an attempt to reveal neglect or abuses within the activities of an organisation, government body or company (or one of its business partners) that threaten public interest, its integrity and reputation. Voluntary and community groups, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions and faith-based organisations commonly are included in this sphere, making the term broader than an NGO. Corruption also includes other forms such as embezzlement, abuse of power, fraud, deception, nepotism, and collusion. Incentive theory provides a conceptual framework for analysing the role and potential of recruitment and promotion mechanisms, detection and penalties, and different wage systems in improving the efficiency of public agencies. A. Perceptions of the impact of corruption on the legal profession at home and abroad 9 1. Although petty corruption usually involves much smaller sums than those that change hands in acts of grand or political corruption, the amounts are not petty for the individuals adversely affected. Corruption Watch (RF) NPC is an accredited Chapter of Transparency International e.V.. Recovery is the process by which governments repatriate the proceeds of corruption hidden in foreign jurisdictions, to the country of origin. Found a spelling error? corruption in South Africa, For up to date information about COVID-19, please visit. South Africa’s auditor-general is one of a number of audit institutions which make a vital contribution to good governance by detecting poor management and inappropriate use of public money. the unethical and/or illegal allocation of resources and/or opportunities Whistleblower protection refers to the measures (administrative or legislative) taken to shield the informer from physical, social and economic retaliation. COLLUSION – a secret agreement between parties, in the public and/or private sector, to conspire to commit actions aimed to deceive or commit fraud with the objective of illicit financial gain. Klitgaard Bribery is corruption by definition. Problems arise when gift giving to and by public officials contradicts the principles of impartiality, professionalism, and meritocracy. The great scholars of corruption ad- dress its effects more broadly than this. CUSTOMER DUE DILIGENCE – this is the obligation for financial institutions to implement processes for the identification of those customers on whose behalf they maintain or operate accounts or conduct transactions. ETHICS – moral principles that govern the behaviour of people in government, companies and society, or the way they conduct activities. In countries with uncontrolled corruption, corruption tends to be more common and unpredictable. Thecausal theory of corruption is a sustained attempt to provide anaccount which accommodates this diversity. ILLICIT FINANCIAL FLOWS – this generally involves the cross-border transfer of money earned through illegal activities, and efforts to shelter wealth from a country’s tax authorities. The notion of state capture deviates from traditional concepts of corruption, in which a bureaucrat might extort bribes from powerless individuals or companies or politicians themselves steal state assets (see KLEPTOCRACY). Corruption is a constant in the society and occurs in all civilizations; however, it has only been in the past 20 years that this phenomenon has begun being seriously explored. KNOW YOUR CUSTOMER (KYC) – describes a set of anti-money laundering measures normally mandated by law which are employed by banks and other financial services to document the true identity of a customer/client and his or her source of wealth to make sure it is legitimate. It could involve the declaration of less income, profits or gains than the amounts actually earned, or the overstatement of deductions. Follow the latest investigations on corruption in South Africa. Transparency International also complains that while many "clean states" show exemplary behavior in their own country, while they are often associated with corruption in foreign countries. Corruption can mean different things for different people. At the micro level, corruption imposes additional costs on growth for companies, especially in terms of their performance and productivity. the act of giving up, as a claim or office or possession. ACCESS TO INFORMATION – the right by law, often through freedom of information legislation (acts or laws), to access key facts and data from the government and any public body based on the notion that citizens can obtain information which is in the possession of the state. TAX HAVENS (see SECRECY JURISDICTIONS) – these are legislative, judicial, fiscal and regulatory spaces provided by jurisdictions that encourage the relocation of economic transactions to that domain. It is an overloaded word often used as the sole cause of the problems in poor countries. Corruption. Businesses will also be able to forecast and estimate the level of corruption, and include it as a measurable expense – controlled corruption, therefore, will not be a major impediment to investments and trade. 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